Thursday, February 16, 2017

The riskiest gift you’ll ever buy : PERFUME

By University of Stirling 13 February 2017
Summary

Image result for perfume tester

Getting the facts right.
Many will pay just as much attention to how they smell, of course. And if it’s a special occasion, a gift of perfume might well be on the agenda too. Either way, read on. There are some must-knows about the science of smell and perfume that may well be new to you.

The nose knows

Smell is the dominant sense in many animals, including humans, and meetings between individuals usually begin with a period of intense mutual sniffing. From this olfactory exploration, animals glean relevant information about a potential mate’s fertility and quality, enabling decisions about whether to breed now or wait until someone better comes along.

While our greetings tend to be more reserved, research on the perception of human body odour reveals that similar messages lurk within our armpits. Researchers commonly test such perceptions using armpit odour collected on worn t-shirts or underarm pads, the wearers having been asked to avoid using fragranced products beforehand.

In experimental tests, men find women’s odour more pleasant and sexy when they are in the fertile part of their menstrual cycle than at other times. Women are more attracted to odours of men who have attractive non-olfactory qualities, such as being socially dominant, facially attractive, or having an air of confidence about them. So smells are important when assessing partners, especially for women.

Our body’s natural smells also appear to provide a for couples to check out their genetic compatibility. Research using the same t-shirt method indicates that both sexes prefer the odour of potential partners who are genetically dissimilar when it comes to a set of genes known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). A range of other vertebrates, from fish and reptiles to birds and mammals, show the same smell preference, apparently because this ultimately produces healthier offspring.

Image result for perfume tester


Arcane aromas

So where do perfumes fit into the picture? Applying perfume to the body probably emerged as a means of disguising the build-up of odour on clothing, which in times past was often worn for weeks or months at a time. Because ingredients were expensive, perfumes were associated with high social status.

There are numerous references to people using perfume in ancient scripts including the Old Testament and the writings of the Roman natural historian Pliny the Elder. The oldest known perfume factory, discovered 12 years ago near the Cypriot town of Pyrgos, dates back about 4000 years.

Eau de yes please

Nowadays, of course, perfumes are relatively cheap and accessible. Despite this and the advent of washing machines and ventilated kitchens, we continue to use them. The social stigma of bad body-odour persists, and the modern fragrance industry is worth billions of pounds worldwide.

But if we need perfumes to simply mask our bad odour, why are there so many different products available? And how do perfumes change or block the potentially relevant information contained within body odour?

Research is now challenging the conventional view that perfumes simply mask bad odour. In one study, researchers asked participants to wear cotton underarm pads, as described above, but they were instructed to apply a particular fragrance under one armpit while leaving the other fragrance-free. Unsurprisingly perhaps, volunteer sniffers later found the fragranced armpit odour to be more pleasant.

But then the researchers asked a new set of participants to apply their fragrance of choice under one armpit and to apply another fragrance, chosen by the experimenters, under the other.

This time, the sniffers judged the fragrance/body odour blends as more attractive when they involved the wearer’s own preferred fragrance – even though the sniffers found the two fragrances roughly comparable when there was no body odour involved. The conclusion? People select fragrances that complement their own body odour, producing a favourable blend.

How might we achieve this? This question brings us back to the MHC genes that we mentioned earlier. A key study determined the MHC group of different sniffers and then noted which odours they preferred among a range of common ingredients that might contribute to a perfume that they would wear.
Image result for perfume tester


The results revealed a correlation between certain MHC groups and preferences for certain ingredients, suggesting that we choose fragrances that enhance the MHC signals that we are already giving off. Yet these correlations disappeared when the same sniffers rated the ingredients for a perfume their partner might choose to wear. At the genetic level, perfume preferences only work when thinking about ourselves.

Another experiment took a slightly different approach to reach a similar conclusion. Researchers first extracted MHC peptides, a signature component of MHC molecules, from a number of volunteers.

They then spiked samples of the volunteers’ body odour with peptides representative of either their own MHC or of other people’s MHC. When they were then asked to choose which spiked odour sample smelled like themselves, they tended to choose the one spiked with their own MHC peptides.




Back to the perfume counter

Taken together, these studies suggest that we evaluate perfumes, at least in part, according to whether they suit our individual, genetically influenced odour.

In an ideal world we might all know our partner’s MHC genotype and choose perfumes that suited them accordingly, perhaps following some helpful system of colour coding or the like. Unfortunately this doesn’t look likely to happen in any major way any time soon – the test currently costs about £160 a head.

So what lessons can be learned from these studies? One main point is that choosing a perfume for your partner based on your own preference is unlikely to work well. Your best bet is to ask perfume shop staff to select a perfume that smells roughly similar to the one you know your partner likes. Or do it yourself using perfume finders online, such as FR.eD or Nose.

For those choosing a fragrance for themselves, the lesson is to ensure you select one that really suits you. In the study of odour/fragrance blends, there were a few wearers who bucked the trend and smelled better with the experimenter-assigned perfume than with the brand they chose themselves.

So it’s always worth investing some time in making a choice, and to test-drive it on your skin first. If this sounds daunting, you can at least proceed in the knowledge that the person best placed to decide what perfume suits you best is looking back at you in the mirror.

S Craig Roberts, Senior Lecturer in Psychology, University of Stirling; Caroline Allen, Researcher, University of Stirling, and Kelly Cobey, Honourary Researcher (Psychology: Hormones and Behaviour), University of Stirling

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.
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Friday, December 09, 2016

A major study investigating air pollution in the New South Wales Lower Hunter has found chemical giant Orica is contributing to ammonium nitrate levels.

The Environment Protection Authority (EPA) carried out the particle characterisation study and dust deposition study in 2014 and 2015.

Particles were sampled at four sites — Newcastle, Beresfield, Mayfield, and Stockton.

The studies found levels were good overall by world standards, but did spike at times as a result of seasonal weather patterns and industrial activities on nearby Kooragang Island.

The study found sea salt was the largest contributor of fine and coarse inhalable particles.

EPA chief executive Barry Buffier said the higher levels at Stockton were mainly due to sea salt and ammonium nitrate.

"I don't think we had a good understanding of that ammonium nitrate issue in Stockton before we did this study," he said.

"So we've put some pollution reduction programs in at Orica in relation to their operations there.

"We'll have a better idea soon as to how effective that's been."

The study found annual average PM 2.5 concentrations were very similar at Newcastle, Mayfield and Beresfield.

Orica to work on pollution reduction program

More data has been collected from Stockton since the particle characterisation study finished, and Orica is funding further analysis.

Kooragang Island site manager Scott Reid said the company was committed to addressing the matter.

"We'll immediately propose a pollution reduction program with the EPA," he said.

"We'll also fund further analysis of particles from the Stockton station, and we'll continue investigations into technologies that will further reduce ammonium emissions from our site."

Mr Reid said changes had been made to the site, including shutting down a section of the plant.

"We've also modified aspects of the prill tower's operations, that will hopefully minimise a generation of particulates during the cooling process," he said.

"We've reduced the airflow through that prill tower.

"We have replaced some equipment and upgraded some equipment in the plant, and we've also done some tweaking of our chemical processes."

Newcastle industry
Photo: The Environment Protection Authority took particles samples at four sites — Newcastle, Beresfield, Mayfield, and Stockton. (Supplied: J Spencer, NSW Office of Environment and Heritage)
10 per cent of dust particles come from coal

The findings of the dust deposition study found coal made up just 10 per cent of the larger dust particles that were visible to the human eye.

Sample sites were selected on where air pollution complaints had been received.

EPA Hunter manager Adam Gilligan said nearly 70 per cent of the large particles came from soil and rock.

"People often expect that material that appears black on their window sills and the like must be coming from the coal industry," he said.

"To see that coal is actually averaging 10 per cent of that large dust that's deposited is no doubt going to be a surprise to some."

The NSW Minerals Council said the research shows coal dust is a relatively minor source of pollution, contradicting what it describes as 'alarmist rhetoric' on the region's air quality.

But Keith Craig from the Stockton Residents Group said coal dust levels are not insignificant.

"I think that's typical of the Minerals Council, but if you talk to the coal industry themselves they realise you've got to have continuous improvement and do things better," he said.

"I mean, every winter people start complaining about black stuff in their pools and on their houses when you've got those westerly winds, so it's still definitely an issue for the community."

The EPA's dust deposition study
Photo: The findings of the EPA's dust deposition study found coal makes up just 10 per cent of the larger dust particles. (ABC News: Nic MacBean)
Greens continue calls for national air pollution act

Greens candidate for the federal seat of Newcastle John Mackenzie described the studies as a "smoking gun".

"It has revealed the extraordinary contribution to particulate pollution from the Orica operations on Kooragang, and the black carbon particles attributable to the city's coal haulage industry, including the coal terminals," he said.

"This study reinforces the Greens' call for a national Air Pollution Control Act and a Commonwealth regulator, so that this kind of work can be extended to other pollution hotspots around the country."

Dr Mackenzie said he would be campaigning for a nationally-consistent approach to air pollution during the upcoming election.

"The innovative work on particle pollution characterisation is a landmark achievement, and demonstrates the kind of outcomes that are possible when industry, community, and government work together to find solutions to the complex issue of air pollution," he said.

"The Greens will continue to argue for strict and enforceable limits in industry operating licences, where the polluters themselves are financially responsible for the health and environmental costs of their pollution.

"Enforceable limits provide real incentives for ongoing improvements and the adoption of cleaner technologies, and works to bring air pollution back within safe levels of exposure, to the benefit of the entire community."

Newcastle Greens candidate, Dr John Mackenzie
Photo: Greens candidate John Mackenzie described the studies as a "smoking gun". (ABC News: Liz Farquhar)
Opposition and residents call for action

The NSW Opposition's environment spokeswoman Penny Sharpe is calling on the Liberal Government to come up with a management plan to address air quality issues.

Ms Sharpe said she was not surprised by the recent findings.

"It shows that there are increased fine particle matters in the air and around the Hunter," she said.

"Really, there needs to be a plan of action from the EPA, local industry and the community on how you're going to reduce that.

"I'd like to see the EPA sit down with the community, which I know they've been doing, and I'd like them to sit down with Orica and really work through what emissions reductions are happening."

Stockton residents have also urged chemical giant Orica to install better pollution measures.

Keith Craig from the Stockton Residents Action Group said while the chemical giant is already taking action, he would like to see more done to cut fine particle pollution from the plant.

"I think the big one, and some of the most dangerous fine particles, was the 40 per cent contribution from Orica during the winter months, when the winds come from Orica," he said.

"So it really needs action and really the only way to do it is to collect those emissions, and put them through a scrubber to reduce the fine particles.

"That's what the new prill towers are designed to do, they have low emissions."

In 2014, Newcastle residents gathered to hear the results of a community-run survey called 'Dust Free Streets Project'.

Monday, November 07, 2016

Odour receptors found in human lung tissue

London: It was always thought that the sole bodily function of olfactory receptors was to smell and they could only be found inside the nose. But a new study has found two olfactory receptors in human lung tissue. And when the researchers from Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany activated these receptors, they found that they regulated the way in which the airways smooth muscle cells contracted. Contraction of smooth muscle changes the size of our airways, suggesting that this research, published in the journal Frontiers in Physiology, may open new avenues for treating chronic breathing disorders — such as asthma, emphysema and bronchitis — that constrict and obstruct the airways. Working with human smooth muscle cells, Benjamin Kalbe and his colleagues applied a large number of odour molecules and watched two of them activate the muscle cells. The researchers also determined how activating the receptors with the odour molecules affected the isolated smooth muscle cells. In their experiment, the researchers explored the impact of activating the receptors with a compound called amyl butyrate. The study showed that the compound had different effects on the receptors. “At the beginning of the experiment we did not expect that the olfactory receptors would have completely different effects,” Kalbe said. These results suggested that activating the receptor OR1D2 would constrict the bronchi, whereas stimulating the other receptor, OR2AG1, might help prevent airways from closing in response to pathological triggers. To further explore the therapeutic potential of these receptors, Kalbe said his team are planning to obtain tissue from people with chronic airway diseases to compare them to healthy tissue, to observe if the receptors change in abundance or function in disease states.

Thursday, October 20, 2016

Pahang DOE: Water supply at Sungai Semantan plant free from odour contamination

KUANTAN, Oct 11 ― The water at the Semantan raw water plant in Temerloh, which is transferred to the Langat and Cheras water treatment plants (LRA) in Selangor, is free from any odour contamination from Saturday until today. Pahang Department of Environment (DOE) director Rosli Zul said the reading was zero based on the measurement of the rate of odour pollution called Threshold Odour Number (TON) to indicate that the quality of water on the time and days in question was normal until today. “DOE obtained the date from the operator at the Semantan water plant. According to the standard operating procedure, the operator must monitor the odour quality and measure the odour pollution every hour. “The Pahang DOE will act if the data they recorded odour pollution, but until today, the water at the Semantan plant is normal, the TON reading is zero,” he said when contacted by Bernama today. However, he did not denied a little odour pollution was recorded on Friday (October 7) at the plant at 9.45pm and it was detected much earlier at 7pm, at the Langat and Cheras LRA. “The process of transferring raw water from the Semantan plant to the two water treatment plants will take 12 hours and based on the monitoring record from 8am to 8pm on October 7, no pollution took place and it was only detected at 9.45pm,” he said. Rosli said after 11pm on the same day, the TON reading of raw water at the Semantan plant had returned to normal and did not indicate any odour pollution. He said the odour pollution was detected again at the Semantan plant at a level of four TON at dawn (5am) on October 8 (Saturday) and the situation returned to normal after 9am. ― Bernama




Http://Anotec.com.au

Pahang DOE: Water supply at Sungai Semantan plant free from odour contamination

KUANTAN, Oct 11 ― The water at the Semantan raw water plant in Temerloh, which is transferred to the Langat and Cheras water treatment plants (LRA) in Selangor, is free from any odour contamination from Saturday until today. Pahang Department of Environment (DOE) director Rosli Zul said the reading was zero based on the measurement of the rate of odour pollution called Threshold Odour Number (TON) to indicate that the quality of water on the time and days in question was normal until today. “DOE obtained the date from the operator at the Semantan water plant. According to the standard operating procedure, the operator must monitor the odour quality and measure the odour pollution every hour. “The Pahang DOE will act if the data they recorded odour pollution, but until today, the water at the Semantan plant is normal, the TON reading is zero,” he said when contacted by Bernama today. However, he did not denied a little odour pollution was recorded on Friday (October 7) at the plant at 9.45pm and it was detected much earlier at 7pm, at the Langat and Cheras LRA. “The process of transferring raw water from the Semantan plant to the two water treatment plants will take 12 hours and based on the monitoring record from 8am to 8pm on October 7, no pollution took place and it was only detected at 9.45pm,” he said. Rosli said after 11pm on the same day, the TON reading of raw water at the Semantan plant had returned to normal and did not indicate any odour pollution. He said the odour pollution was detected again at the Semantan plant at a level of four TON at dawn (5am) on October 8 (Saturday) and the situation returned to normal after 9am. ― Bernama




Http://Anotec.com.au

Monday, October 17, 2016

Natural Wonders Monday for you







Australia gears up for rare weather event

IT’S been described as the most spectacular thing you can see in the sky, other than a full eclipse. And it’s happening right here in Australia.

‘It’s fundamentally weird and alien’

IT lives on the forest floor but “the blob” could be the key to changing all of our everyday lives.

Morons topple iconic rock pedestal

AT first it was said to be an act of nature. But footage has revealed a group of young people deliberately destroyed a beloved rock formation.

Fisherman’s find is just pearl-fect

THE world’s biggest pearl, weighing 34kg and worth more than $100 million, has been unveiled in The Philippines. You won’t believe where it’s been kept the past 10 years.

‘Earth will be one giant continent’

A WORLD without borders is a very distinct possibility when one supercontinent forms from all of Earth’s major land masses, predict scientists.

Coral ‘orgies’ could save our reef

THERE is still plenty to learn about the mass spawning events of coral, and such secrets could help save the world’s dying reefs.

Ellen is not backing down on reef comments

IT got her Twitter bombed by Environment Minister Greg Hunt, but Ellen DeGeneres says she’s glad her call to save the Great Barrier Reef is being talked about.

The truth Australia doesn’t want to hear

SAVING the Great Barrier Reef should be about more than embracing a photo opp. We need to make the one hard decision that could actually save it.

First snow dump this season

IT MAY have surprised some, but the year’s first snowfall fell early this morning in Thredbo providing exciting scenes for skiers.

Barrier Reef ‘dead in 20 years’

IT’LL be harder to find Nemo in years to come with experts saying damage to the Great Barrier Reef is more dire than previously thought.

Scientists discover hidden Antarctic lake

A LARGE lake may be hiding beneath the ice that covers Antarctica and it may contain countless life forms that frozen continent for millions of years.

Secret coral reef discovered in Amazon river

THE world’s second longest river is home to hidden treasures, a scientific research team has discovered.

This is how desperate scientists are

SOME Aussies are so desperate to be heard they’ve spent $14,000 to get their message across this week.

Radical idea to save Aussie icon

MORE than $40 million has been pumped into a hi-tech research facility in Australia powered by nuclear technology, but has it come too late?

Massive dust storm engulfs Barossa

FIVE cars were involved in a crash after strong winds whipped up a huge dust storm from the recent Pinery bushfires in South Australia.

Thursday, October 13, 2016

remediation odour

Anotec Environmental Pty Ltd has a unwavering commitment to provide the best odour control solution for you. To meet the current and ongoing odour control needs of our national and international clients; Anotec Environmental offers comprehensive odour control solutions meeting and exceeding client expectations. Anotec Environmental's diverse client portfolio spans an enormous variety of commercial interests (small and large) including insurance companies, health care providers, manufacturers, retailers, property developers, building and construction companies, telecommunications, and entertainment and information technology companies, exporters of Australian goods and services, engineers, local Commonwealth and State government entities, research and development syndications, hospitality and industrial companies.






Friday, September 16, 2016

Odour bylaw wafts its way through approval process

City council is moving forward with bylaw amendments that, if approved, will crackdown on nuisance odours.

Council, at last week’s meeting, gave first and second reading to regulations that seek to ban commercial and industrial business owners from discharging or emitting offensive odours, as determined by the city bylaw officer.

The move was prompted by a homeowner’s complaint in April concerning the deep fryer exhaust odours emanating from a restaurant on the Island Highway. City Clerk Peter Wipper said in a report to council last month that fumes from the restaurant are vented through a flue at the back of the building which is at a similar height to the complainant’s outdoor patio roughly 30 feet away.

Coun. Larry Samson said at last week’s council meeting that he could sympathize with what the homeowners were going through.

“I do support the motion. It is our basic right to enjoy our home and home includes the yards and everything else,” said Samson, adding that the city needs to be proactive in heading off conflict before it happens, particularly in light of the city’s push to bring residential into the downtown core. “As we develop downtown and we’re trying to bring in commercial as well as residential, I think it’s important we have clear guidelines on the commercial component which is the restaurants; that they do have the onus on them to control the odour.”

Under the bylaw amendments council is considering, nuisance odour deemed unlawful would include any odour in the air that is “harmful, poisonous, disgusting, repulsive, very unpleasant, offensive or interferes with the use or enjoyment of property, endangers personal health or safety, or is offensive to the senses and causes inconvenience or annoyance to a person with a normal sense of smell.”

The bylaw would not apply to permitted combustion such as wood stoves and vehicle emissions. Wipper said that in the event a business was found to be out of compliance with the bylaw, the owner would be required to hire an independent odour specialist to recommend mitigation measures.

Mayor Andy Adams questioned, however, whether it was necessary to go so far as to require a business owner to hire a professional engineer licensed in odour control, as is laid out in the bylaw. Adams said engineers certified in HVACs, and other infiltration systems are “more than adequate to provide services and meet the majority of conditions we’re likely to be presented with.”

But Coun. Marlene Wright said she didn’t feel comfortable altering the original wording in the bylaw.

“I feel we’re playing with words here and that can be very dangerous,” Wright said. “This is a very serious matter and I know other municipalities have had problems with this kind of issue so I think we need to do our due diligence and be as careful as we can when we set a bylaw.”

Coun. Ron Kerr added that he “would hate” for the city to be challenged if the designation was loosened, and he urged council to get moving on the bylaw.

“It’s pleasant to debate this issue in chambers but it’s not pleasant to be held hostage in your own home by odour like these residents are, so let’s move ahead with this bylaw,” Kerr said.

In the end, council approved first and second reading of the bylaw, with Adams opposed. If the bylaw – which does not require a public hearing to pass – is approved, city staff will identify areas in the city where the potential for conflict with respect to nuisance odour exists and zone them appropriately.




Can you call it harassment when you have to put up with someone’s particularly bad breath or body odour?

Can you call it harassment when you have to put up with someone’s particularly bad breath or body odour?

Trust the Japanese to not only make “smell harassment” part of their lexicon, but also to conduct seminars for companies seeking to reduce olfactory assaults in the workplace without hurting the feelings of staff concerned.

Mandom, Japan’s biggest manufacturer of men’s personal-care products, was in the news this week for holding seminars on “smell care” or “odour etiquette” – polite classes on how not to asphyxiate your colleagues. The aim is to help people become more aware of the scents they produce and encourage them to improve personal hygiene, thereby reducing the distress they cause to others.

Companies have already started sending their staff to these seminars, and some are taking it a step further with guidelines for employees to brush their teeth after meals, lay off pungent food during office hours, and generally avoid inflicting unpleasant smells on their colleagues.

Women, in particular, are becoming increasingly “sensitive to the smells of men”, a Mandom spokesman was quoted as stating.

Why is it that body odour seems to be a bigger problem among men than women?

While all this may seem bizarre or comical to many, it resonates in Japan with its much maligned demographic of middle-aged or older “salarymen” who are often portrayed as a bunch of smelly, chain-smoking, beer-guzzling sad sacks.

Bear in mind, also, that the concept of “smell harassment” fits right into a cubicle culture of office complaints that include “alcohol harassment” (hapless junior staff being forced to binge-drink by their seniors or bosses) and “karaoke harassment” (forced to sing or listen to others yodelling at office gatherings, often in combination with alcohol harassment).

The more politically correct and commiserating types among us may have reservations about using the term “harassment”, but a long-suffering friend has no qualms about telling it like it is when it comes to her workplace.

She says her boss is a believer in close-contact communication, which would be fine if he wasn’t afflicted by a particularly horrendous case of halitosis.

Every conversation with him apparently leaves her green around the gills as she tries anything from holding her breath to thinking of England to counter the onslaught without hurting his feelings. He also has a habit of “spraying it, not saying it”, which leaves her fantasising about shower caps, in addition to gas masks, when he’s talking to her.

I guess there are elements to this story that ring true for many of us. And it’s not just in the workplace.

I was on a long-distance flight once when every hair in my nostrils was under attack, courtesy of the passenger sitting next to me. His breath was so powerful that you didn’t even have to be downwind to experience its potency, the laws of physics be damned. Instead of kicking up a stink, I ended up asking the flight attendant for a medical mask and pretending I was the sick man.

It’s easy to be insensitive and even cruel about it, which is why there’s no shortage of wisecracks like, “Is it rude to throw a breath mint into someone’s mouth while they’re talking?” or “We should have a way of telling people their breath stinks without hurting their feelings, like, ‘I’m bored, let’s go brush your teeth’!”

But the bottom line is whether it’s a case of genuine halitosis, digestive dysfunction, a garlic-heavy meal, or coffee and cigarettes on a stressful day at work, being unaware of how you smell can be very problematic.

I’d say the rule of thumb is, if you can smell yourself, chances are others have been able to for a while.

Yonden Lhatoo is a senior editor at the Post


Yonden Lhatoo is intrigued by the latest trend in Japan to tackle a universal problem in the workplace that most of us are too polite to raise a stink over


Monday, July 04, 2016

Experiment to identify criminals by their body odour shows promising results

Identifying a criminal in an identity parade by his body odour may be an effective method of identifying culprits, scientists have said. In the first test of its kind, tests have shown that people can often accurately recognise the perpetrator of a crime by smelling them – with a potential for error similar to that of eyewitness or vocal identifications. In criminal processes, witnesses can often play a crucial role and their identification of criminals can be received as evidence in courts of justice. But while identification of body odour by dogs have also been accepted, human olfaction has always been considered too limited to be an accurate method. In a new research, published in the journal Frontiers in Psychology, scientists contradict this view, suggesting that everyone has a 'unique odour print' that can be recognised by their peers, and that this method may by as valid as any other types of human identification. ID parade and body odour To test the efficacy of identifying perpetrators by their body odour, the researchers carried two sets of experiments. In the first, 73 participants were presented an authentic video clip of a violent crime along with a body odour, which was said to belong to the criminal. The body odours had been collected on nursing pads sewn to different male volunteers' T-shirts over four hours. Then, in an ID-parade test composed of three, five or eight body odour samples, they asked the participants to identify the one belonging to the perpetrator. In the three cases, the probability of choosing the correct culprit was higher than chance levels, suggesting the method may be reliable to use in forensic settings. However, the scientists observed that the number of correct answers decreased as the ID-parade size increased. In those composed of eight body-odour samples, the probability of identifying the criminal was lower. The second experiment confirmed this and also indicated that the method was less reliable when there was a longer interval between first smelling the criminal's body odour and then identifying them in an ID parade. The scientists point out that these limits are similar to the ones observed in eyewitness or vocal witness identification. Though more research is needed in the identification of criminals through their body odour, it could be an interesting tool to complement existing identification methods. "Identification of body odour in a forensic setting is possible and has characteristics in line with witness identification through other modalities, altogether meriting further investigation in this new field. Olfactory memory may turn out to be an interesting forensic tool, either in the identification of culprits or in the recollection of event details", the authors conclude.

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